Leadership Team:

Name Affiliation
James Joseph University of Cambridge
Stefan Morscher iThera Medical


The overall aim of the phantom development theme is to develop a set of stable PAI image quality phantoms with defined optical and acoustic properties. These phantom models will be used to establish consensus performance test methods and support future standards development.

The goals of the theme include:

  1. Standardised Phantom Development: Define the optical and acoustic properties for the image quality phantoms and development and validation of phantom fabrication methodology.

  2. Conduction of a consortium wide test: Co-ordination and management of multi-center phantom fabrication, data analysis, and reporting of test results.


Phantom development theme is currently focussed on the development and technical characterisation of suitable phantom materials and phantom designs. The theme propose the use of a polymer-mineral oil phantom composition, where all constituent materials have defined CAS numbers and are available from commercial chemistry suppliers. A pilot study involving 13 partner labs is designed and being implemented. A detailed characterisation of the resulting acoustic and optical properties will be used to evaluate the precision and accuracy of phantoms fabricated at multiple sites.

Proposed deliverables:

Phantoms which possess good temporal stability will be initially fabricated to assess the temporal stability and reproducibility. This includes the formulation and distribution of suitable protocols to enable multi-center fabrication and testing of phantoms. A phantom formulation which offers high temporal stability and fabrication reproducibility will undergo further technical characterisation. The optical and acoustic properties given by the phantom will be used define the optical and acoustic properties of PAI image quality phantoms. Phantom designs will also be established to perform standardisation of PAI systems with varying detection geometries.